Structural characteristics of fault rocks distributed within major fault zones provide basic information in understanding the physical aspects of faulting. Mesoscopic structural observations of the drilledcores from Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project Hole-A are reported in this article to describe and reveal the distribution of fault rocks within the Chelungpu Fault System.
The Chelungpu Fault System in Hole-A was encountered at a depth of between 1050 - 1250 m where deformation structures increased. Three major fault zone structures were found at approximate depths of 1111, 1153, and 1221 m. The presence of wide fault rock regions were mostly concentrated in these 3 fault zones. The fault zone at 1111 m mainly consists of a nearly brecciated fracture zone and a clayey fault gouge zone of about 1.05 m in thickness. Fault rocks from the fault zone at 1153 m are characterized by the presence of sand grains in the matrix content, consisting of a 1.1-m thick fault breccia zone and a 0.35-m thick fault gouge zone. The fault zone at 1221 m consists of fault breccia and fault gouge of 1.15 m in total thickness. These are relatively harder and darker in color than the previous 2 fault zones. Each of the 3 fault zones contains a few layers of dark colored rocks of approximately 5 - 80 mm in thickness within the fault breccia and fault gouge zones. These dark colored rocks were found distinctively within the fault rocks. However, there relation to the process of faulting is not clearly understood and shall be discussed in detail with the aid of microscopic observations.