Monsoon effect simulation on typhoon rainfall potential - Typhoon Morakot (2009)

  • Author(s): Yi-Ling Chang, Hsi-Chyi Yeh, Gin-Rong Liu, Chian-Yi Liu, Chung-Chih Liu, and Tang-Huang Lin
  • DOI: 10.3319/TAO.2016.08.17.01(CCA)
  • Keywords: Typhoon rainfall potential, Southwesterly monsoon, Low-level wind speed, Convergence, Water vapor content, WRF model, 3D-Var system
  • Citation: Chang, Y. L., H. C. Yeh, G. R. Liu, C. Y. Liu, C. C. Liu, and T. H. Lin, 2017: Monsoon effect simulation on typhoon rainfall potential - Typhoon Morakot (2009). Terr. Atmos. Ocean. Sci., 28, 11-21, doi: 10.3319/TAO.2016.08.17.01(CCA)
  • Monsoon wind field was reasonably simulated via 3D-VAR data assimilation
  • Accumulated typhoon rainfall is sensitive to regional water vapor and wind speed
  • Coupling effects of SW monsoon on typhoon rainfall can be numerically evaluated

A record breaking extreme precipitation event produced 3000 mm day-1 of accumulated rainfall over southern Taiwan in August 2009. The interactions between Typhoon Morakot and the prevailing southwesterly (SW) monsoon are the primary mechanism for this heavy precipitation during 5 - 13 August 2009. This extreme precipitation could be produced by the abundant moisture from the SW monsoon associated with the interaction between typhoon and monsoon wind fields, leading to severe property damage. The accurate mapping of extreme precipitation caused from the interaction between a monsoon and typhoon is critical for early warning in Taiwan. This study simulates the heavy rainfall event is based on the Weather Research and Forecast system model (WRF) using the three nested domain configuration. Using data assimilation with a virtual meteorological field using the 3D-Var system, such as wind field to alter the SW monsoon strength in the initial condition, the impacts of intensified convergence and water vapor content on the accumulated rainfall are analyzed to quantize the intensification of typhoon rainfall potential. The results showed a positive correlation between the enhanced precipitation and the intensity of low-level wind speed convergence as well as water vapor content. For the Typhoon Morakot case study the rainfall for could attain approximately 2 × 104 mm at 6 hours interval in the southern Taiwan area when 10 × 10-6 s-1 convergence intensified at 850 hPa level around the southern part of the Taiwan Strait. These results suggest that low-level wind speed, convergence and water vapor content play key roles in the typhoon rainfall potential coupled with the SW monsoon.


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