Pressure Gradient in a Sigma Coordinate

Abstract

A method is proposed to calculate the pressure gradient force in a sigma-p coordinate over mountains. The method uses a local reference state to calculate the pressure perturbation, which is then used to calculate the pressure gradient force. In addition to mathematical formulas, the author also presents the numerical results, showing the proposed method indeed produces very accurate results. Another advantage to the method is that there is no need to calculate any field beneath the ground.

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