A Modeling Study of Typhoon Toraji (2001): Physical Parameterization Sensitivity and Topographic Effect


This paper investigates the dependence of simulated track, central pressure, maximum wind, and accumulated rainfall of Typhoon Toraji (2001) on physical parameterizations, using the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University- National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5). The model configuration includes three nested domains with grid size of 60, 20, and 6.67 km, respectively. Three sets of five numerical experiments on cumulus, cloud microphysics, and planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterizations are performed (15 experiments totally). Among subgrid-scale cumulus schemes tested, the simulated typhoon with the Grell scheme has the best track. For grid-scale cloud microphysics scheme examined, all storms have similar tracks, with the best simulated track using the Goddard Graupel cloud microphysics scheme. The PBL parameterization substantially affects the simulated typhoon tracks, and the storm with the Medium-Range Forecast model PBL has track and intensity that most resemble actual observations.

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